Foodictionary -

Basic explanations behind the techniques you are using when you cook. Nothing makes you sound cooler than throwing out the word "blanch" at a party. 

Chop/dice--Cut with a knife.

Medium dice--Chopping into the size of

Small dice--Chopping to the size of

Large dice/Rough chop--Chopping to the size of

Saute--Move ingredients around in a well-heated pan.

Caramelize--To cook ingredients in a well-heated pan with the goal of releasing sugars naturally found inside; creates a brown color. 

Sear--Place an ingredient in an extremely hot pan with the goal of creating color and locking in moisture. 

Braise--A two-step process in which first you sear the ingredient and then cover it halfway with liquid and cook at a low temperature. 

Blanch--Placing vegetables in rigorous boiling water for up to one minute, normally followed by shocking. The goal is to pre-cook vegetables to help them retain their texture and color. 

Shocking--Immediately dipping blanched ingredients into ice water. If ice is not available, alternatively blanched ingredients can be run under cold water. 

Roast--Using circulating dry heat to cook food. 

Deep fry--Submerging food in oil or fat to cook it. 

Pan fry--Using oil or fat to cook food. 

Boil--Using water that is aggressively bubbling to cook food. 

Reduce--To simmer a liquid until about half of it evaporates with the goal of increasing depth of flavor and perhaps thickness. Usually used for making sauce.  

Simmer--Using water that is gently bubbling to cook food.